My blog guests this week are Amy Conn, Bruce Bloom, and Clare Thibodeaux from Cures Within Reach. Disclosure: I am a member of their Advisory Board, and think that testing older drugs for rare diseases is brilliant!
The power of repurposing
What if the latest treatment for cancer, diabetes or thousands of other unsolved diseases was already available?
Although this might sound too good to be true, “repurposing” existing drugs could make this a reality. Repurposing takes any drug, device or nutriceutical, already approved in one disease, and tests it in a different disease to quickly and affordably improve more patients’ lives.
Currently more than 500 million people worldwide suffer from diseases that lack effective treatments. As a result, global health care costs are growing and patients are suffering. Yet new drug discovery can take 10-15 years and can cost over $2 billion. This process is too long and costly for many patients who needs a solution today.
Instead, repurposing leverages prior investments by finding new uses for “old” drugs. This means repurposed treatments can reach patients in about 3 years and for less than $500,000.
Testing for repurposing sometimes means they are first tested in tissue samples or animal models in laboratories to find accurate dosing. If this pre-clinical research is done, the drug can quickly move into human trials. In some cases, it moves into human trials immediately.
How do repurposing ideas happen?
Repurposing is not a new concept. Doctors often prescribe medications ‘off-label’ when they think the patient may benefit. This happens when there is no approved treatment for a specific medical condition.
- In fact, 1 in 5 prescriptions (21.3%) written in the United States are for off-label use. The range varies widely, based on the medical condition or patient group. For instance off-label use can be as high as 7 in 10 children for pediatric illnesses, because sponsors don’t typically focus on them. Here is a table with common off-label prescriptions.
Repurposing research can take off-label prescribing a step further by confirming clinical observations through a clinical trial. The data from these trials can then be published in scientific journals, and shared with other doctors to become part of standard treatment.
- Patients also contribute insights when they describe how a drug or supplement that they are taking for one issue impacts a different disease or diagnosis (i.e. “my asthma drug seems to be helping my eczema”).
- Ideas also come from laboratory scientists, who connect the dots between newly discovered disease information and existing compounds.
- And in our emerging world of big data, informatics engines can comb through scientific literature to find existing ideas and generate new ideas suitable for immediate testing.
Who pays for repurposing research?
Sometimes, pharmaceutical companies finance repurposing projects.
A case in point: Viagra
Originally tested as a drug for angina, sildenafil failed. Instead, it was repositioned into the Pfizer blockbuster Viagra for erectile dysfunction after patients mentioned this side effect. Sildenafil was still under patent protection and the market was huge, making it a lucrative endeavor. This drug was later repurposed by Pfizer a second time in a different dosage under the name Revatio for pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Too many are orphans
Many repurposed opportunities are based on generic drugs that are often inexpensive and widely available. These characteristics make them ideal candidates for repurposing for patients, but industry doesn’t often pursue them, since there is no clear path to profit. This is where philanthropy plays an important role.
Cures Within Reach (CWR) is a global non-profit dedicated to repurposing research
CWR focuses on improving patient outcomes in any disease with repurposed treatments, while addressing larger needs around global collaboration, and the creation of alternative financial incentives for repurposing.
Since 2010, 13 repurposing projects that Cures Within Reach supported have made a clinical impact. One such project involved repurposing sirolimus, a generic drug originally used to reduce organ transplant rejection, to treat a rare and deadly childhood disease called autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS).
Children with ALPS carry a genetic mutation that causes some of their white blood cells to multiply and crowd out other types of blood cells. They suffer from enlarged lymph nodes and spleens, increased infections and anemia. Some patients can spend up to 10 days a month in the hospital receiving treatment, placing physical, emotional and financial burdens on patients and their family.
CWR funded research that helped prove that sirolimus produced a lasting positive response in patients, leading to fewer hospitalizations, greatly lowered medical costs and improved quality of life. This result happened in 3 years for about $250,000. Sirolimus has since been repurposed in 5 more childhood autoimmune diseases with similar results.
Ready for more successes with CureAcceleratorTM
Philanthropic funding was critical to this high-impact repurposing research. There are many more opportunities like this one, in which a small “investment” can create a life-saving repurposed treatment.
To find important repurposing opportunities CWR asks:
- How can we help repurposing researchers connect with strong funding streams?
- Are there financial models other than traditional philanthropy that can help scale this research?
To answer these questions, CWR created an online crowd-sourced platform in 2015 called CureAccelerator.™ Check us out, and watch for another post soon about CureAccelerator.
Repurposing is an important healthcare strategy, both in terms of patient impact and cost savings. As scientists and clinicians learn more about the mechanisms and molecular targets of diseases, repurposing will play an even larger role. The key stakeholders in repurposing, from funders to researchers to patient advocates to industry, all need to work together to drive new “old” treatments to patients.
Learn more about repurposing drugs here.